The scientists of Johns Hopkins Medicine while studying a fatal breast cancer type known as triple negative, discovered the difference between cancer cells, which attach to initial tumours and those that migrate to distant tumours.
They used mouse models and human tissues to conduct the research. They also believe that this research can open opportunities for new treatment developments based on targeted molecular variations.
The report on the findings was published in Science Translational Medicine on 3rd August.
Co-leader of the Cancer Invasion and Metastasis Program, John Hopkins Kimmel Care Center said,
According to the breast cancer statistics in the US, 20% to 30% of the diagnosed patients are triple negative. Furthermore, the rate is higher in Black women. They experience this form of the disease more often.
Nature of Triple Negative Cancers
The cancer is lethal in nature and the cells lack molecular flags on its surface, which connect the hormones with estrogen, progesterone, and Her2-neu. These flags are targetted by breast cancer therapies, making them of no use to cancers with triple negative tumours.
The research team studied the molecular difference between initial, primary, and triple negative breast cancer sites. They also looked at the areas where it spread or the metastatic site among the three different types of cells. كيفية لعب البوكر للمبتدئين For example, mouse models, mice with human cancer implanted, and samples of primary and metastatic tissue. They were taken from eight patients who underwent treatment at Johns Hopkins Hospital. الروليت الامريكي
Furthermore, a combination of cellular imaging, machine learning, and biochemical analysis was used to identify the differentiating factors in the patterns of expression between initial and metastatic tumours.
The research team further found other unique properties in the cells of the mouse versions of triple negative breast cancers. In addition, mice with tumours implanted through people with triple negative breast cancer were also included.
It was concluded that triple negative breast cancers invade more tissues while migrating to another part of the body. Moreover, they also gain two cellular properties, which are an improvement in survival and movement.
The breast cancer cells gain a cellular skeleton protein dubbed vimentin to do so, which enhances the ability of the mesenchymal cells to migrate. Mesenchymal cells are usually found in bone and bone marrow. They move around and form new cells.
E-cadherin proteins are produced by the triple-negative breast cancer cells, which help them in survival. Furthermore, when triple negative breast cancer cells gain the advantages of survival and migration qualities, the cellular state is called hybrid epithelial-mesenchymal cells (EMT).
The scientists tracked the molecular patterns of individual cell assays with Elana Fertig, who is the co-director of the Convergence Institute at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center. تعليم البوكر للمبتدئين
Fertig’s team used machine learning to look for patterns in the RNA expressions of the cells. Scientists discovered that most metastatic cells change into a hybrid, EMT state with better survival. These states were validated using samples from eight patients.
Moreover, at molecular levels, cells with the highest metastasis produced five proteins known as transcription factors. These proteins invade cancer cells or form colonies.
His team is further working on ways to block transcription factors of genes and their resulting proteins, which can help in halting metastatic growth. In addition to whether the same molecular changes occur in other cancers. For example, adrenal glands, colon, small intestine, and stomach.