Neonate’s Dual Colored Body

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Image source: The New England Journal of Medicine©

Isn’t it worrisome if a neonate’s tiny body gets divided into two colors?
Even the imagination of a baby’s body turning half red and half pale triggers a series of worrisome thoughts. The good news is that a temporary change in color is not troublesome; it’s just a Harlequin phenomenon!

A male neonate who was born at 35 weeks of gestation had well-demarcated unilateral erythema of the body on the third day of birth. He had been antenatally diagnosed with Ebstein’s anomaly.

 At birth, he had respiratory distress with low oxygen saturation, not responding to the initial measures; therefore, he was intubated. Infusions of alprostadil (prostaglandin E1) and dobutamine were initiated.

A computed tomographic scan showed pulmonary hypoplasia and bronchial obstruction secondary to cardiomegaly. Echocardiography had revealed right atrial dilatation, severe tricuspid dysplasia, and pulmonary atresia.

On the third day, during the episode of unilateral erythema of the body, the vitals, and the physical examination were normal.

A diagnosis of Harlequin color change was made.

Harlequin phenomenon is a rare, benign, and transient change in the color of one side of the body or body part, displaying erythema on one side and pallor on the other side. The change in color is only short-lived, persisting for 30 seconds to a maximum of 20 minutes. This change in color usually occurs between two to five days of age. A few cases have been reported to occur as late as three weeks of birth.

Harlequin color change (HCC) is only seen in 10% of the healthy neonates.

The exact mechanism behind HCC remains unknown. However, some theories have suggested the role of sympathetic autonomic dysfunction. Anesthetic agents, alprostadil, prematurity, hypoxia, and low birth weight have been reported to be associated with HCC.

 The transient, positional color demarcation with erythematous dependant side can be vertical with a sharp line of demarcation, as seen in the patient in the discussion here. However, the color demarcation can be horizontal or even patchy. When its patchy, even then, the margins are sharply defined.

Image source: PubMed©  

HCC is an entirely harmless and benign phenomenon. It is not associated with permanent long term complications; therefore, no treatment is necessary. However, it is imperative to counsel the parents and the family members as this change in color, though transient, may be worrisome for the naïve individuals.

References

Gert van den Berg, M. P. (2020, January 30). Harlequin Color Change in a Neonate. Retrieved from The New England Journal of Medicine: https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMicm1907713

Velayuthan S, Sankararaman S. Visual diagnosis: newborn who has unilateral color change. Diagnosis: Harlequin color change. Pediatr Rev. 2013;34(7):e25–e26

Valerio, E., Barlotta, A., Lorenzon, E., Antonazzo, L., & Cutrone, M. (2015). Harlequin Color Change: Neonatal Case Series and Brief Literature Review. AJP reports, 5(1), e73–e76. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0035-1545671

Tang, J., Bergman, J., & Lam, J. M. (2010). Harlequin color change: unilateral erythema in a newborn. CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association journal = journal de l’Association medicale canadienne,182(17), E801. https://doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.092038

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Dr. Arsia Parekh
Dr. Arsia Hanif has been a meritorious Healthcare professional with a proven track record throughout her academic life securing first position in her MCAT examination and then, in 2017, she successfully completed her Bachelors of Medicine and Surgery from Dow University of Health Sciences. She has had the opportunity to apply her theoretical knowledge to the real-life scenarios, as a House Officer (HO) serving at Civil Hospital. Whilst working at the Civil Hospital, she discovered that nothing satisfies her more than helping other humans in need and since then has made a commitment to implement her expertise in the field of medicine to cure the sick and regain the state of health and well-being. Being a Doctor is exactly what you’d think it’s like. She is the colleague at work that everyone wants to know but nobody wants to be. If you want to get something done, you approach her – everyone knows that! She is currently studying with Medical Council of Canada and aspires to be a leading Neurologist someday. Alongside, she has taken up medical writing to exercise her skills of delivering comprehensible version of the otherwise difficult medical literature. Her breaks comprise either of swimming, volunteering services at a Medical Camp or spending time with family.

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